With the development of sand and gravel aggregate production in the direction of green, intelligent and large-scale, the gyratory crusher, as a high-efficiency and energy-saving coarse crushing equipment, is gradually being used in large-scale projects. However, due to its working principle and structural characteristics, the process layout of the gyratory crusher is special, and once it is not comprehensively considered, it will have a greater impact on investment and production.
Several common problems in the installation and layout of the gyro-break
(1) Unreasonable project site selection: Failure to comprehensively consider transportation, engineering geology, hydrogeology and weather conditions, resulting in waste of transportation distance, sinking, cracking, and poor drainage.
(2) Whether the equipment adopts dynamic balance design is not considered, and the equipment foundation platform, especially the layout of the feed opening is not fully considered, resulting in loose anchor bolts and serious wear of the feed opening.
(3) Unreasonable layout of receiving silo volume, insufficient attention to raw ore transportation vehicles, material moisture content, mud content and other factors, resulting in poor transportation, difficult feeding, uneven feeding, and frequent damage to key equipment components.
(4) Unreasonable overhaul span layout, insufficient overhaul space, unreasonable overhaul hoisting ports, etc.
(5) The unreasonable selection of the bottom buffer bin and the discharge device affects the discharge and accident handling.
Key points of gyratory crusher layout
The process layout is to ensure that the equipment reaches the optimal working conditions and production conditions. Like other coarse crushing equipment, they all need to meet the basic requirements, and at the same time, they must be reasonably designed according to the natural conditions of the site, equipment maintenance conditions and structural differences. According to statistics, the ratio of general construction cost to equipment investment cost is: 1~2:1， Good design can reduce the ratio to 0.5:1.
(1) The site selection of the project shall comprehensively consider transportation, engineering geology, geology and other conditions, and priority is given to the site selection with relatively high difference, and the construction cost needs to be comprehensively considered for construction on flat ground.
The gyroscopic foundation needs to be fixed in the rock to prevent slippage caused by vibration, and is connected to the overall foundation and poured as a whole to form a whole. Once the foundation settlement occurs, it can sink as a whole to prevent the centerline of the crusher from shifting.
(2) The service life of the project is different, and the key points that need to be considered in the layout are also different.
If the service life is short, the semi-fixed steel structure can be used, or the investment can be reduced by simplifying some functions, such as the volume of the lower buffer silo. Long service life must ensure the functional integrity of equipment maintenance and operation. At the same time, it is necessary to reserve space for future reconstruction and expansion.
(3) Determine the layout form according to the difference in structural performance.
Typical process layout
The layout of the gyratory crusher can be divided into an upper and a lower structure.
The upper structure is mainly a revolving workshop, including: inspection and repair channels, spare parts storage, and discharge and crushing channels. The lower structure is composed of receiving bin, equipment installation platform, bottom overhaul platform, bottom buffer bin, unloading platform, etc.
(1) The height of the workshop should meet the requirements of the maximum lifting height of the overhaul parts for the swing break during layout.
(2) When determining the width of the unloading channel, it is necessary to clearly adopt single-sided, double-sided or three-sided unloading, and initially determine the width based on the truck specifications and the number of parking spaces. Of course, its width must also consider the volume of the receiving bin. Dust removal and suppression facilities, such as water mist spraying, need to be arranged at the discharge site.
(3) The overhaul area is equipped with overhaul hoisting holes and personnel passages. The overhaul and maintenance of auxiliary equipment such as the main motor, hydraulic station and lubrication station need to be hoisted through the overhaul holes. The size of the overhaul holes does not need to be the same, and the design can be differentiated according to the different sizes of the lifting equipment on each floor.
(4) The overhaul site is a spare parts overhaul and temporary storage area. The size of the space is related to the maximum storage parts and spare parts storage capacity.
(5) In addition to the above three parts, some projects are equipped with vehicle channels according to actual needs.
The substructure is the core of the entire circumflexion arrangement.
(1) The layout of the receiving bin should make the material unloading unobstructed and evenly distributed in the crushing cavity. At the same time, it is necessary to consider avoiding material impact to the crushing cavity to bring greater impact. The direction of the beam of the crusher needs to be consistent with the direction of the truck discharge to avoid direct impact on the main shaft. In the three-side feeding arrangement, the vertical discharge side needs to set up a distribution wall as a buffer device.
(2) The layout of the equipment layer focuses on the form of the lower opening. When the design is a vertical discharge opening, it will cause the material to scour the discharge opening and cause serious wear. It is recommended that the discharging port be “trumpet” shape to avoid the above situation.
(3) The purpose of the lower buffer bin is to empty the material in the crushing chamber into the lower bin when the discharge equipment fails during production, so the volume of this part is not less than two carts of materials.
(4) There are many options for discharging devices. Generally, heavy-duty plate feeders, heavy-duty belt feeders (used in metal ore crushing, but less in sand and gravel materials), vibration feeders and direct belt conveyors are generally used. The heavy-duty apron feeder is the most reliable discharge equipment, but due to the heavy weight of the equipment, it leads to maintenance assistance and large equipment investment. Vibrating feeders are mostly used in small projects. When large equipment is used, two equipments are used for discharge. It has the advantages of small investment and stable operation. It is widely used in sand and aggregate projects.
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